关于大学英语四、六级考试题型调整的说明
日期:2015-12-28 附件下载:
 

 

201312月考次起,全国大学英语四、六级考试委员会将对四、六级考试的试卷结构和测试题型作局部调整。调整后,四级和六级的试卷结构和测试题型相同。

一、试卷描述

四级和六级的试卷结构、测试内容、测试题型、分值比例和考试时间如下表所示:

 

试卷

结构

测试内容

测试题型

分值

比例

考试

时间

写作

写作

短文写作

15%

30分钟

听力

理解

听力

对话

短对话

选择题(单选题)

8%

30分钟

长对话

选择题(单选题)

7%

听力

短文

短文理解

选择题(单选题)

10%

短文听写

单词及词组听写

10%

阅读

理解

词汇理解

选词填空

5%

40分钟

长篇阅读

匹配

10%

仔细阅读

选择题(单选题)

20%

翻译

汉译英

段落翻译

15%

30分钟

总计

100%

130分钟

 

二、新题型说明

1.   单词及词组听写

原复合式听写调整为单词及词组听写,短文长度及难度不变。要求考生在听懂短文的基础上,用所听到的原文填写空缺的单词或词组,共10题。短文播放三遍。

2.   长篇阅读

原快速阅读理解调整为长篇阅读理解,篇章长度和难度不变。篇章后附有10个句子,每句一题。每句所含的信息出自篇章的某一段落,要求考生找出与每句所含信息相匹配的段落。有的段落可能对应两题,有的段落可能不对应任何一题。

3.   翻译

原单句汉译英调整为段落汉译英。翻译内容涉及中国的历史、文化、经济、社会发展等。四级长度为140-160个汉字;六级长度为180-200个汉字。

三、成绩报道

成绩报道分为总分和单项分。单项分包括:1)听力,2)阅读,3)翻译和写作。

四、样题

大学英语四级考试样题见附件1。(附件为PDF格式文件)

大学英语六级考试样题见附件2

              

          全国大学英语四、六级考试委员会 

                               2013年8月14

 

 

Part I

Writing

(30 minutes)

Directions: For this part, you are allowed 30 minutes to write an essay. You should

start your essay with a brief description of the picture and then express

your views on the importance of learning basic skills. You should write at

least 120 words but no more than  180 words. Write your essay on

Answer Sheet 1.

注意:此部分试题请在答题卡 1上作答。

Part II

Listening Comprehension

(30 minutes)

Section A

Directions:  In this  section,  you  will hear  8  short conversations  and  2  long

conversations. At the end of each conversation, one or more questions will

be asked about what was said. Both the conversation and the questions

will be spoken only once. After each question there will be a pause.

During the pause, you must read the four choices marked A), B), C) and

D), and decide which is the best answer. Then mark the corresponding

letter on Answer Sheet 1 with a single line through the centre.

注意:此部分试题请在答题卡 1上作答。

1.   A) The man has left a good impression on her family.

B) The man’s jeans and T-shirts are stylish.

C) The man should buy himself a new suit.

D) The man can dress casually for the occasion.

2.   A) Its price.

B) Its comfort.

C) Its location.

D) Its facilities.


 

3.   A) It is a routine offer.

B) It is quite healthy.

C) It is new on the menu.

D) It is a good bargain.

4.   A) Read the notice on the window.

B) Board the bus to Cleveland.

C) Go and ask the staff.

D) Get a new bus schedule.

5.   A) He is ashamed of his present condition.

B) He is careless about his appearance.

C) He changes jobs frequently.

D) He shaves every other day.

6.   A) The woman had been fined many times before.

B) The woman knows how to deal with the police.

C) The woman had violated traffic regulations.

D) The woman is good at finding excuses.

7.   A) She got hurt in an accident yesterday.

B) She has to go to see a doctor.

C) She is black and blue all over.

D) She stayed away from work for a few days.

8.   A) She will ask David to talk less.

B) She will meet the man halfway.

C) She is sorry the man will not come.

D) She has to invite David to the party.

Questions 9 to 11 are based on the conversation you have just heard.

9.   A) Beautiful scenery in the countryside.

B) A sport he participates in.

C) Dangers of cross-country skiing.

D) Pain and pleasure in sports.

10. A) He can’t find good examples to illustrate his point.

B) He can’t find a peaceful place to do the assignment.

C) He can’t decide whether to include the effort part of skiing.

D) He doesn’t know how to describe the beautiful country scenery.

11. A) New ideas come up as you write.

B) Much time is spent on collecting data.

C) A lot of effort is made in vain.

D) The writer’s point of view often changes.

Questions 12 to 15 are based on the conversation you have just heard.

 


 

12. A) Having her bicycle repaired.

B) Hosting an evening TV program.

C) Lecturing on business management.

D) Conducting a market survey.

13. A) He repaired bicycles.

B) He coached in a racing club.

C) He worked as a salesman.

D) He served as a consultant.

14. A) He wanted to be his own boss.

B) He didn’t want to be in too much debt.

C) He didn’t want to start from scratch.

D) He found it more profitable.

15. A) They are all the man’s friends.

B) They work five days a week.

C) They are paid by the hour.

D) They all enjoy gambling.

Section B

Directions: In this section, you will hear 3 short passages. At the end of each passage,

you will hear some questions. Both the passage and the questions will be

spoken only once. After you hear a question, you must choose the best

answer from the four choices marked A), B), C) and D). Then mark the

corresponding letter on Answer Sheet 1 with a single line through

the centre.

注意:此部分试题请在答题卡1上作答。

Passage One

Questions 16 to 18 are based on the passage you have just heard.

16. A) They shared mutual friends in school.

B) They had many interests in common.

C) They shared many extracurricular activities.

D) They had known each other since childhood.

17. A) At a local club.

B) At Joe’s house.

C) At the boarding school.

D) At the sports center.

18. A) Durable friendships can be very difficult to maintain.

B) One has to be respectful of other people in order to win respect.

C) Social divisions will break down if people get to know each other.

D) It is hard for people from different backgrounds to become friends.

Passage Two

Questions 19 to 21 are based on the passage you have just heard.

19. A) The art of Japanese brush painting.

B) Some features of Japanese culture.

C) Characteristics of Japanese artists.

D) The uniqueness of Japanese art.

 


 

20. A) To calm themselves down.

B) To enhance concentration.

C) To show their impatience.

D) To signal lack of interest.

21. A) How speakers can misunderstand the audience.

B) How speakers can win approval from the audience.

C) How listeners in different cultures show respect.

D) How different Western and Eastern art forms are.

Passage Three

Questions 22 to 25 are based on the passage you have just heard.

22. A) They mistake the firefighters for monsters.

B) They do not realize the danger they are in.

C) They cannot hear the firefighters for the noise.

D) They cannot see the firefighters because of the smoke.

23. A) He teaches Spanish in a San Francisco community.

B) He often teaches children what to do during a fire.

C) He travels all over America to help put out fires.

D) He provides oxygen masks to children free of charge.

24. A) He is very good at public speaking.

B) He rescued a student from a big fire.

C) He gives informative talks to young children.

D) He saved the life of his brother choking on food.

25. A) Kids should learn not to be afraid of monsters.

B) Informative speeches can save lives.

C) Carelessness can result in tragedies.

D) Firefighters play an important role in America.

Section C

Directions: In this section, you will hear a passage three times. When the passage is

read for the first time, you should listen carefully for its general idea.

When the passage  is read for the second time, you are required to fill in

the blanks with the exact words you have just heard. Finally, when the

passage is read for the third time, you should check what you have

written.

注意:此部分试题请在答题卡1上作答。

Almost every  child, on the first day he sets foot in a school building, is smarter,

more

26   , less afraid of what he doesn’t know, better at finding and    27   ,

more confident, resourceful (机敏的), persistent and        than he will ever be

again in his schooling – or, unless he is very unusual and very lucky, for the rest of his

life. Already, by paying close attention to and        the world and people around

28

29


 

him, and without any school-type formal instruction, he has done a task far more

difficult, complicated and        than anything he will be asked to do in school, or than

any of his teachers has done for years. He has solved the        of language. He has

30

31

discovered it – babies don’t even know that language exists – and he has found out how

it works and learned to use it   32   . He has done it by exploring, by experimenting,

by developing his own model of the grammar of language, by         and seeing

33

whether it works, by gradually changing it and        it until it does work. And

34

while he has been doing this, he has been learning other things as well, including

many of the “   35   ” that the schools think only they can teach him, and many that

are more complicated than the ones they do try to teach him.

Part III

Reading Comprehension

(40 minutes)

Section A

Directions:In this section, there is a passage with ten blanks. You are required to

select one word for each blank from a list of choices given in a word bank

following the passage. Read the passage through carefully before making

your choices. Each choice in the bank is identified by a letter. Please

mark the corresponding letter for each item on Answer Sheet 2  with

a single line through the centre. You may not use any of the words in the

bank more than once.

Questions 36 to 45 are based on the following passage.

One in six. Believe it or not, that’s the number of Americans who struggle with

hunger. To make tomorrow a little better, Feeding America, the nation’s largest

36

hunger-relief organization, has chosen September as Hunger Action Month.

As part of its 30 Ways in 30 Days program, it’s asking        across the country to

37

help the more than 200 food banks and 61,000 agencies in its network provide

low-income individuals and families with the fuel they need to   38   .

It’s the kind of work that’s done every day at St. Andrew’s Episcopal Church in

San Antonio. People who        at its front door on the first and third Thursdays of

39

each month aren’t looking for God – they’re there for something to eat. St. Andrew’s

runs a food pantry (食品室) that

40

the city and several of the

41

towns.

Janet Drane is its manager.

In the wake of the    42   , the number of families in need of food assistance

began to grow. It is        that 49 million Americans are unsure of where they will

find their next meal. What’s most surprising is that 36% of them live in

43

44

where

at least one adult is working. “It used to be that one job was all you needed,” says St.

Andrew’s Drane. “The people we see now have three or four part-time jobs and

they’re still right on the edge   45   .”

注意:此部分试题请在答题卡 2上作答。


 

A) accumulate

B) circling

I) households

J) recession

K) reported

L) reviewed

M) serves

C) communities

D) competition

E) domestic

F) financially

G) formally

H) gather

N) surrounding

O) survive

Section B

Directions: In this section, you are going to read a passage with ten statements

attached to it. Each statement contains information given in one of the

paragraphs. Identify  the  paragraph from  which the  information is

derived. You may choose a paragraph more than once. Each paragraph

is  marked  with  a  letter.  Answer   the  questions  by  marking  the

corresponding letter on Answer Sheet 2.

Universities Branch Out

A) As never before in their long history, universities have become instruments of

national competition as well as instruments of peace. They are the place of the

scientific discoveries that move economies forward, and the primary means of

educating the talent required to obtain and maintain competitive advantage. But at

the same time, the opening of national borders to the flow of goods, services,

information and especially people has made universities a powerful force for

global integration, mutual understanding and geopolitical stability.

B) In response to the same forces that have driven the world economy, universities

have become more self-consciously global: seeking students from around the

world who represent the entire range of cultures and values, sending their own

students abroad to prepare them for global careers, offering courses of study that

address the challenges of an interconnected world and collaborative (合作的)

research programs to advance science for the benefit of all humanity.

C) Of the forces shaping higher education none is more sweeping than the movement

across borders. Over the past three decades the number of students leaving home

each year to  study abroad has grown at an annual rate of 3.9 percent, from

800,000 in 1975 to 2.5 million in 2004. Most travel from one developed nation to

another, but the flow from developing to developed countries is growing rapidly.

The reverse flow, from developed to developing countries, is on the rise, too.

Today foreign students earn 30 percent of the doctoral degrees awarded in the

United States and 38 percent of those in the United Kingdom. And the number

crossing borders for undergraduate study is growing as well, to 8 percent of the

undergraduates at America’s best institutions and 10 percent of all undergraduates

in the U.K. In the United States, 20 percent of the newly hired professors in

science and engineering are foreign-born, and in China many newly hired faculty


 

members at the top research universities received their graduate education abroad.

D) Universities are also encouraging students to spend some of their undergraduate

years in another country. In Europe, more than 140,000 students participate in the

Erasmus program each year, taking courses for credit in one of 2,200 participating

institutions across the continent. And in the United States, institutions are helping

place students in summer internships (实习) abroad to prepare them for global

careers. Yale and Harvard have led the way, offering every undergraduate at least

one international study or internship opportunity—and providing the financial

resources to make it possible.

E) Globalization is also reshaping the way research is done. One new trend involves

sourcing portions of a research program to another country. Yale professor and

Howard Hughes Medical Institute investigator Tian Xu directs a research center

focused on the genetics of human disease at Shanghai’s Fudan University, in

collaboration with faculty colleagues from both schools. The Shanghai center has

95 employees and graduate students working in a 4,300-square-meter laboratory

facility. Yale faculty, postdoctors and graduate students visit regularly and attend

videoconference seminars with scientists from both campuses. The arrangement

benefits both countries; Xu’s Yale lab is more productive, thanks to the lower

costs of conducting research in China, and Chinese graduate students, postdoctors

and faculty get on-the-job training from a world-class scientist and his U.S. team.

F) As a result of its strength in science, the United States has consistently led the

world in the commercialization of major new technologies, from the mainframe

computer and the integrated circuit of the 1960s to the Internet infrastructure (

础设施   )   and  applications   software  of  the   1990s.  The   link  between

university-based science and industrial application is often indirect but sometimes

highly visible: Silicon Valley was intentionally created by Stanford University,

and Route 128 outside Boston has long housed companies spun off from MIT and

Harvard. Around the world, governments have encouraged copying of this model,

perhaps most successfully in Cambridge, England, where Microsoft and scores of

other leading software and biotechnology companies have set up shop around the

university.

G) For all its success, the United States remains deeply hesitant about sustaining the

research-university   model.  Most   politicians  recognize   the   link  between

investment in science and national economic strength, but support for research

funding has been unsteady.  The budget of the National  Institutes of Health

doubled between 1998 and 2003, but has risen more slowly than inflation since

then. Support for the physical sciences and engineering barely kept pace with

inflation during that same period. The attempt to make up lost ground is welcome,

but the nation would be better served by steady, predictable increases in science

funding at the rate of long-term GDP growth, which is on the order of inflation

plus 3 percent per year.

H) American politicians have great difficulty recognizing that admitting more foreign

students can greatly promote the national interest by  increasing international

 


 

understanding. Adjusted for inflation, public funding for international exchanges

and foreign-language study is well below the levels of 40 years ago. In the wake

of September 11, changes in the visa process caused a dramatic decline in the

number  of foreign  students seeking  admission  to U.S.  universities, and  a

corresponding  surge in  enrollments  in  Australia,  Singapore and  the  U.K.

Objections from American university and business leaders led to improvements in

the process and a reversal of the decline, but the United States is still seen by

many as unwelcoming to international students.

I)  Most Americans recognize that universities contribute to the nation’s well-being

through their scientific research, but many fear that foreign students threaten

American competitiveness by taking their knowledge and skills back home. They

fail to grasp  that welcoming foreign students  to the United States has  two

important positive effects: first, the very best of them stay in the States and—like

immigrants  throughout history—strengthen  the  nation;  and second,  foreign

students who study in the United States become ambassadors for many of its most

cherished (珍视) values when they return home. Or at least they understand them

better. In America as elsewhere, few instruments of foreign policy are as effective

in promoting peace and stability as welcoming international university students.

注意:此部分试题请在答题卡 2上作答。

46. American universities prepare their undergraduates for global careers by giving

them chances for international study or internship.

47. Since the mid-1970s, the enrollment of overseas students has increased at an

annual rate of 3.9 percent.

48. The enrollment of international students will have a positive impact on America

rather than threaten its competitiveness.

49. The way research is  carried out in universities has  changed as a result of

globalization.

50. Of the newly hired professors in science and engineering in the United States,

twenty percent come from foreign countries.

51. The number of foreign students applying to U.S. universities decreased sharply

after September 11 due to changes in the visa process.

52. The U.S. federal funding for research has been unsteady for years.

53. Around the world, governments encourage the model of linking university-based

science and industrial application.

54. Present-day universities have become a powerful force for global integration.

 


 

55. When foreign students leave America, they will bring American values back to

their home countries.

Section C

Directions: There are 2 passages in this section. Each passage is followed by some

questions or unfinished statements. For each of them there are four

choices marked A), B), C) and D). You should decide on the best choice

and mark the corresponding letter on Answer Sheet 2 with a single

line through the centre.

Passage One

Questions 56 to 60 are based on the following passage.

Global warming is causing more than 300,000 deaths and about $125 billion in

economic losses each year, according to a report by the Global Humanitarian Forum,

an organization led by Kofi Annan, the former United Nations secretary general.

The report, to be released Friday, analyzed data and existing studies of health,

disaster, population and economic trends. It found that human-influenced climate

change was raising the global death rates from illnesses including malnutrition (营养

不良) and heat-related health problems.

But even before its release, the report drew criticism from some experts on

climate and risk, who questioned its methods and conclusions.

Along with the deaths, the report said that the lives of 325 million people,

primarily in poor countries, were being seriously affected by climate change.  It

projected that the number would double by 2030.

Roger Pielke Jr., a political scientist at the University of Colorado, Boulder, who

studies   disaster   trends,   said  the   Forum’s   report   was   “a   methodological

embarrassment” because there was no way to distinguish deaths or economic losses

related to human-driven global warming amid the much larger losses resulting from

the growth in populations and economic development in vulnerable (易受伤害的)

regions. Dr. Pielke said that “climate change is an important problem requiring our

utmost attention.” But the report, he said, “will harm the cause for action on both

climate change and disasters because it is so deeply flawed (有瑕疵的).”

However, Soren Andreasen, a social scientist at Dalberg Global Development

Partners who supervised the writing of the report, defended it, saying that it was clear

that the numbers were rough estimates. He said the report was aimed at world leaders,

who will meet in Copenhagen in December to negotiate a new international climate

treaty.

In a press release describing the report, Mr. Annan stressed the need for the

negotiations to focus on increasing the flow of money from rich to poor regions to

help reduce their vulnerability to climate hazards while still curbing the emissions of

the heat-trapping gases. More than 90% of the human and economic losses from

climate change are occurring in poor countries, according to the report.

注意:此部分试题请在答题卡 2上作答。

 


 

56. What is the finding of the Global Humanitarian Forum?

A) Rates of death from illnesses have risen due to global warming.

B) Global temperatures affect the rate of economic development.

C) Malnutrition has caused serious health problems in poor countries.

D) Economic trends have to do with population and natural disasters.

57. What do we learn about the Forum’s report from the passage?

A) It caused a big stir in developing countries.

B) It was warmly received by environmentalists.

C) It aroused a lot of interest in the scientific circles.

D) It was challenged by some climate and risk experts.

58. What does Dr. Pielke say about the Forum’s report?

A) Its statistics look embarrassing.

B) It deserves our closest attention.

C) It is invalid in terms of methodology.

D) Its conclusion is purposely exaggerated.

59. What is Soren Andreasen’s view of the report?

A) Its conclusions are based on carefully collected data.

B) It is vulnerable to criticism if the statistics are closely examined.

C) It will give rise to heated discussions at the Copenhagen conference.

D) Its rough estimates are meant to draw the attention of world leaders.

60. What does Kofi Annan say should be the focus of the Copenhagen conference?

A) How human and economic losses from climate change can be reduced.

B) How rich countries can better help poor regions reduce climate hazards.

C) How emissions of heat-trapping gases can be reduced on a global scale.

D) How rich and poor regions can share responsibility in curbing global warming.

Passage Two

Questions 61 to 65 are based on the following passage.

It’s an annual argument. Do we or do we not go on holiday? My partner says no

because the boiler could go, or the roof fall off, and we have no savings to save us. I

say you only live once and we work hard and what’s the point if you can’t go on

holiday. The joy of a recession means no argument next year – we just won’t go.

Since money is known to be one of the things most likely to bring a relationship

to its knees, we should be grateful. For many families the recession means more than

not booking a holiday. A YouGov poll of 2,000 people found 22% said they were

arguing more with their partners because of concerns about money. What’s less clear

is whether divorce and separation rates rise in a recession – financial pressures mean

couples argue more but make splitting up less affordable. A recent research  shows

arguments  about money  were  especially damaging  to  couples. Disputes  were

characterised by intense verbal (言语上的) aggression, tended to be repeated and not

 


 

resolved, and made men, more than women, extremely angry.

Kim Stephenson, an occupational psychologist, believes money is such a big deal

because of what it symbolises, which may be different things to men and women.

“People can say the same things about money but have different ideas of what it’s

for,” he explains. “They’ll say it’s to save, to spend, for security, for freedom, to show

someone you love them.” He says men are more likely to see money as a way of

buying status and of showing their parents that they’ve achieved something.

“The biggest problem is that couples assume each other knows what’s going on

with their finances, but they don’t. There seems to be more of a taboo (禁忌) about

talking about money than about death. But you both need to know what you’re doing,

who’s paying what into the joint account and how much you keep separately. In a

healthy relationship, you don’t have to agree about money, but you have to talk about

it.”

注意:此部分试题请在答题卡 2上作答。

61. What does the author say about vacationing?

A) People enjoy it all the more during a recession.

B) Few people can afford it without working hard.

C) It is the chief cause of family disputes.

D) It makes all the hard work worthwhile.

62. What does the author mean by saying “money is known ... to bring a relationship

to its knees” (Lines 1-2, Para. 2)?

A) Money is considered to be the root of all evils.

B) Disputes over money may ruin a relationship.

C) Few people can resist the temptation of money.

D) Some people sacrifice their dignity for money.

63. The YouGov poll of 2,000 people indicates that in a recession ________.

A) couples show more concern for each other

B) it is more expensive for couples to split up

C) conflicts between couples tend to rise

D) divorce and separation rates increase

64. What does Kim Stephenson believe?

A) Men and women view money in different ways.

B) Money is often a symbol of a person’s status.

C) Men and women spend money on different things.

D) Money means a great deal to both men and women.

65. The author suggests at the end of the passage that couples should ________.

A) put their money together instead of keeping it separately

B) discuss money matters to maintain a healthy relationship

C) make efforts to reach agreement on their family budgets

D) avoid arguing about money matters to remain romantic

 


 

Part IV

Translation

(30 minutes)

Directions: For this part, you are allowed 30 minutes to translate a passage from

Chinese into  English. You should  write your  answer on Answer

Sheet 2.

剪纸(paper cutting)是中国最为流行的传统民间艺术形式之一。中国剪纸

有一千五百多年的历史,在明朝和清朝时期(the Ming and Qing Dynasties)特别

流行。人们常用剪纸美化居家环境。特别是在春节和婚庆期间,剪纸被用来装饰

门窗和房间,以增加喜庆的气氛。剪纸最常用的颜色是红色,象征健康和兴旺。

中国剪纸在世界各地很受欢迎,经常被用作馈赠外国友人的礼物。

注意:此部分试题请在答题卡 2上作答。


 

Tape Script of Listening Comprehension

Section A

Directions:  In this  section,  you  will hear  8  short conversations  and  2  long

conversations. At the end of each conversation, one or more questions will

be asked about what was said. Both the conversation and the questions

will be spoken only once. After each question there will be a pause.

During the pause, you must read the four choices marked A), B), C) and

D), and decide which is the best answer. Then mark the corresponding

letter on Answer Sheet 1 with a single line through the centre.

1. M: Finally I’ve got the chance to put on my new suit tonight. I hope to make a

good impression on your family.

W: Come on, it’s only a family reunion. So jeans and T-shirts are just fine.

Q: What does the woman mean?

2. W: From here, the mountains look as if you could just reach out and touch them.

M: That’s why I chose this lodge. It has one of the best views in Switzerland.

Q: What is the man’s chief consideration in choosing the lodge?

3. M: Miss, can I interest you in the pork special we’re serving tonight? It’s only

$7.99, half the usual price, and it’s very tasty.

W: Oh, really? I’ll try it.

Q: What does the man say about the dish?

4. W: This crazy bus schedule has got me completely confused. I can’t figure out

when my bus to Cleveland leaves.

M: Why don’t you just go to the ticket window and ask?

Q: What does the man suggest the woman do?

5. M: Shawn’s been trying for months to find a job. But I wonder how he could get a

job when he looks like that.

W: Oh, that poor guy! He really should shave himself every other day at least and put

on something clean.

Q: What do we learn about Shawn?

6. M: Why didn’t you stop when we first signaled you at the crossroads?

W: Sorry, I was just a bit absent-minded. Anyway, do I have to pay a fine?

Q: What do we learn from the conversation?

7. W: My hand still hurts from the fall on the ice yesterday. I wonder if I broke

something.

M: I’m no doctor, but it’s not black and blue or anything. Maybe you just need to rest

it for a few days.

Q: What do we learn about the woman from the conversation?

 


 

8. M: I really can’t stand the way David controls the conversation all the time. If he’s

going to be at your Christmas party, I just won’t come.

W: I’m sorry you feel that way, but my mother insists that he come.

Q: What does the woman imply?

Conversation One

M: Hello, Professor Johnson.

W: Hello, Tony. So what shall we work on today?

M: Well, the problem is that this writing assignment isn’t coming out right. What I

thought I was writing on was to talk about what a particular sport means to me—one I

participate in.

W: What sport did you choose?

M: I decided to write about cross-country skiing.

W: What are you going to say about skiing?

M: That’s the problem. I thought I would write about how peaceful it is to be out in

the country.

W: So why is that a problem?

M: As I start describing how quiet it is to be out in the woods, I keep mentioning how

much effort it takes to keep going. Cross-country skiing isn’t as easy as some people

think. It takes a lot of energy. But that’s not part of my paper, so I guess I should leave

it out. But now I don’t know how to explain that feeling of peacefulness without

explaining how hard you have to work for it. It all fits together. It’s not like just

sitting down somewhere and watching the clouds roll by. That’s different.

W: Then you’ll have to include that in your point. The peacefulness of cross-country

skiing is the kind you earn by effort. Why leave that out? Part of your point you knew

beforehand, but part you discovered as you wrote. That’s common, right?

M: Yeah, I guess so …

Questions 9 to 11 are based on the conversation you have just heard.

9. What is the topic of the man’s writing assignment?

10. What problem does the man have while working on his paper?

11. What does the woman say is common in writing papers?

Conversation Two

W: Good evening, and welcome to this week’s “Business World,” the program for and

about businesspeople. Tonight we have Mr. Steven Kane who has just taken over an

established bicycle shop. Tell us, Mr. Kane, what made you want to run your own

store?

M: Well, I’ve always loved racing bikes and fixing them. When I was working

full-time as a salesman for a big company, I seldom had time to enjoy my hobby. I

knew then that as soon as I had enough money to get my own business going, I’d do

it. I had my heart set on it, and I didn’t let anything stand in my way. When I went

 


 

down to the bank and got a business loan, I knew I’d love being my own boss. Now

my time is my own. I open the store when I want and leave when I want.

W: You mean you don’t keep regular hours?

M: Well, the sign on my store says the hours are 10:00 to 6:00, but if business is

slower than usual, I can just lock up and take off early.

W: Have you hired any employees to work with you yet?

M: Yeah, a couple of friends of mine who love biking as much as I do. They help me

out a few days a week. It’s great because … we play cards or just sit around and talk

when there’re no customers.

W: Thank you, Mr. Kane. We wish you success in your new business.

Questions 12 to 15 are based on the conversation you have just heard.

12. What is the woman doing?

13. What did Mr. Kane do before he took over the bicycle shop?

14. Why did the man take over a bicycle shop?

15. What do we learn about the people working in the shop?

Section B

Directions: In this section, you will hear 3 short passages. At the end of each passage,

you will hear some questions. Both the passage and the questions will be

spoken only once. After you hear a question, you must choose the best

answer from the four choices marked A), B), C) and D). Then mark the

corresponding letter on Answer Sheet 1 with a single line through

the centre.

Passage One

I first met Joe Gans when we were both nine years old, which is probably the

only reason he’s one of my best friends. If I had first met Joe as a freshman in high

school, we wouldn’t even have had the chance to get to know each other. Joe is a day

student, but I am a boarding student. We haven’t been in the same classes, sports, or

extracurricular activities.

Nonetheless, I spend nearly every weekend at his house and we talk on the phone

every night. This is not to say that we would not have been compatible if we had first

met in our freshman year. Rather, we would not have been likely to spend enough

time getting to know each other due to the lack  of immediately visible mutual

interests. In fact, to be honest, I struggle even now to think of things we have in

common. But maybe that’s what makes us enjoy each other’s company so much.

When I look at my friendship with Joe, I wonder how many people I’ve known

whom I never disliked, but simply didn’t take the time to get to know. Thanks to Joe,

I have realized how little basis there is for the social divisions that exist in every

community. Since this realization, I have begun to make an even more determined

effort to find friends in unexpected people and places.

Questions 16 to 18 are based on the passage you have just heard.

 


 

16. Why does the speaker say Joe Gans became one of his best friends?

17. Where does the speaker spend most of his weekends?

18. What has the speaker learned from his friendship with Joe?

Passage Two

While Gail Opp-Kemp, an American artist, was giving a speech on the art of

Japanese brush painting to an audience that included visitors from Japan, she was

confused to see that many of her Japanese listeners had their eyes closed. Were they

turned off because an American had the nerve to instruct Japanese in their own art

form? Were they deliberately trying to signal their rejection of her?

Opp-Kemp later  found out that  her listeners  were not being  disrespectful.

Japanese listeners sometimes close their eyes to enhance concentration. Her listeners

were showing their respect for her by chewing on her words.

Someday you may be either a speaker or a listener in a situation involving people

from other countries or members of a minority group in North America. Learning

how different cultures signal respect can help you avoid misunderstandings. Here are

some examples:

In the deaf culture of North America, many listeners show applause not by

clapping their hands but by waving them in the air.

In some cultures, both overseas and in some minority groups in North America,

listeners are considered disrespectful if they look directly at the speaker. Respect is

shown by looking in the general direction but avoiding direct eye contact.

In some countries, whistling by listeners is  a sign of approval, while in other

countries, it is a form of insult.

Questions 19 to 21 are based on the passage you have just heard.

19. What did Opp-Kemp’s speech focus on?

20. Why do Japanese listeners sometimes close their eyes while listening to a speech?

21. What does the speaker try to explain?

Passage Three

One of the greatest heartbreaks for firefighters occurs when they fail to rescue a

child  from  a burning  building  because  the  child—frightened  by  smoke and

noise—hides under a bed or in a closet and is later found dead.

Saddest of all is when children catch a glimpse of the masked firefighter but hide

because they think they have seen a monster.

To prevent such tragedies, firefighter Eric Velez gives talks to children in his

community, explaining  that they should  never hide  during a fire.  He displays

firefighters’ equipment, including the oxygen mask, which he encourages his listeners

to play with and put on. “If you see us,” Velez tells them, “don’t hide. We are not

monsters. We have come to rescue you.”

Velez gives  his presentations in  English and Spanish.  Growing up in  San

 


 

Francisco, he learned Spanish from his immigrant parents.

Velez—and  other firefighters  throughout North  America  who give  similar

presentations—will never know how many lives they save through their talks, but it’s

a fact that informative speaking  saves lives. For example, several months  after

listening to an informative speech, Pete Gentry in North Carolina rescued his brother,

who was choking on food, by using the method taught by student speaker Julie Parris.

In addition to saving lives, informative speakers help people learn new skills,

solve problems, and acquire fascinating facts about the exciting world in which they

live.

Questions 22 to 25 are based on the passage you have just heard.

22. Why do some children trapped in a burning building hide from masked firefighters?

23. What does the passage tell us about firefighter Eric Velez?

24. What do we learn about Pete Gentry?

25. What message is the speaker trying to convey?

Section C

Directions: In this section, you will hear a passage three times. When the passage is

read for the first time, you should listen carefully for its general idea.

When the passage is read for the second time, you are required to fill in

the blanks with the exact words you have just heard. Finally, when the

passage is read for the third time, you should check what you have

written.

Almost every child, on the first day he sets foot in a school building, is smarter,

more (26)  curious, less afraid  of what he doesn’t know, better  at finding and

(27)  figuring things  out, more  confident, resourceful  (机敏的), persistent  and

(28) independent than he will ever be again in his schooling – or, unless he is very

unusual and very lucky, for the rest of his life. Already, by paying close attention to

and (29)  interacting  with the world and  people around him,  and without any

school-type formal instruction, he has done a task far more difficult, complicated and

(30) abstract than anything he will be asked to do in school, or than any of his

teachers has done for years. He has solved the (31) mystery of language. He has

discovered it – babies don’t even know that language exists – and he has found out

how it works and learned to use it (32) appropriately. He has done it by exploring, by

experimenting,  by developing his own  model of the grammar of  language, by

(33)  trying it out and  seeing whether  it works, by gradually  changing it  and

(34) refining it until it does work. And while he has been doing this, he has been

learning other things as well, including many of the (35) “concepts” that the schools

think only they can teach him, and many that are more complicated than the ones they

do try to teach him.


 

参考答案

Part II 

Section A

1.   D

6.   C

11. A

Listening Comprehension

2.   C

7.   A

12. B

3.   D

8.   D

13. C

4.   C

9.   B

14. A

5.   B

10. C

15. A

Section B

16. D

21. C

17. B

22. A

18. C

23. B

19. A

24. D

20. B

25. B

Section C

26. curious

28. independent

30. abstract

27. figuring things out

29. interacting with

31. mystery

32. appropriately

34. refining

33. trying it out

35. concepts

Part III   Reading Comprehension

Section A

36. E

41. N

37. C

42. J

38. O

43. K

39. H

44. I

40. M

45. F

Section B

46. D

51. H

47. C

52. G

48. I

53. F

49. E

54. A

50. C

55. I

Section C

56. A

61. D

57. D

62. B

58. C

63. C

59. D

64. A

60. B

65. B

Part IV   Translation

Paper cutting is one of China’s most popular traditional folk arts. Chinese paper

cutting has a history of more than 1,500 years. It was widespread particularly during

the Ming and Qing Dynasties. People often beautify their homes with paper cuttings.

During the Spring Festival and wedding celebrations, in particular, paper cuttings are

used to  decorate  doors, windows  and rooms  in  order to  enhance the  joyous

atmosphere. The color most frequently used in paper cutting is red, which symbolizes

health and prosperity. Chinese paper cutting is very popular around the world and it is

often given as a present to foreign friends.

 

 

Part I

Writing

(30 minutes)

Directions: For this part, you are allowed 30 minutes to write an essay commenting

on the remark “Earth provides enough to satisfy every man’s need, but

not every man’s greed.” You can cite examples to illustrate your point.

You should write at least 150 words but no more than 200 words. Write

your essay on Answer Sheet 1.

注意:此部分试题请在答题卡1上作答。

Part II

Listening Comprehension

(30 minutes)

Section A

Directions:  In this  section,  you  will hear  8  short conversations  and  2  long

conversations. At the end of each conversation, one or more questions will

be asked about what was said. Both the conversation and the questions

will be spoken only once. After each question there will be a pause.

During the pause, you must read the four choices marked A), B), C) and

D), and decide which is the best answer. Then mark the corresponding

letter on Answer Sheet 1 with a single line through the centre.

注意:此部分试题请在答题卡1上作答。

1.   A) The man happened to see Anna fall on her back.

B) The serious accident may leave Anna paralyzed.

C) The doctor’s therapy has been very successful.

D) The injury will confine Anna to bed for quite a while.

2.   A) Give his contribution some time later.

B) Borrow some money from the woman.

C) Buy an expensive gift for Gemma.

D) Take up a collection next week.

3.   A) Add more fruits and vegetables to her diet.

B) Ask Tony to convey thanks to his mother.

C) Tell Tony’s mother that she eats no meat.

D) Decline the invitation as early as possible.

4.   A) She phoned Fred about the book.

B) She was late for the appointment.

C) She ran into Fred on her way here.

D) She often keeps other people waiting.


 

5.   A) Simply raise the issue in their presentation.

B) Find more relevant information for their work.

C) Put more effort into preparing for the presentation.

D) Just make use of whatever information is available.

6.   A) He needs a vehicle to be used in harsh weather.

B) He has a fairly large collection of quality trucks.

C) He has had his truck adapted for cold temperatures.

D) He does routine truck maintenance for the woman.

7.   A) Visit a different store for a silk or cotton shirt.

B) Get a discount on the shirt she is going to buy.

C) Look for a shirt of a more suitable color and size.

D) Replace the shirt with one of some other material.

8.   A) Not many people have read his article.

B) He regrets having published the article.

C) Most readers do not share his viewpoints.

D) The woman is only trying to console him.

Questions 9 to 11 are based on the conversation you have just heard.

9.   A) To test how responsive dolphins are to various signals.

B) To examine how long it takes dolphins to acquire a skill.

C) To see if dolphins can learn to communicate with each other.

D) To find out if the female dolphin is cleverer than the male one.

10. A) Press the right-hand lever first.

B) Produce the appropriate sound.

C) Raise their heads above the water.

D) Swim straight into the same tank.

11. A) Both dolphins were put in the same tank.

B) The male dolphin received more rewards.

C) The lever was beyond the dolphins’ reach.

D) Only one dolphin was able to see the light.

Questions 12 to 15 are based on the conversation you have just heard.

12. A) Good or bad, they are there to stay.

B) Believe it or not, they have survived.

C) Like it or not, you have to use them.

D) Gain or lose, they should be modernised.

13. A) The frequent train delays.

B) The monopoly of British Railways.

C) The food sold on the trains.

D) The high train ticket fares.

 


 

14. A) Competition from other modes of transport.

B) The low efficiency of their operation.

C) Constant complaints from passengers.

D) The passing of the new transport act.

15. A) They will be de-nationalised.

B) They lose a lot of money.

C) They are fast disappearing.

D) They provide worse service.

Section B

Directions: In this section, you will hear 3 short passages. At the end of each passage,

you will hear some questions. Both the passage and the questions will be

spoken only once. After you hear a question, you must choose the best

answer from the four choices marked A), B), C) and D). Then mark the

corresponding letter on Answer Sheet 1 with a single line through

the centre.

注意:此部分试题请在答题卡1上作答。

Passage One

Questions 16 to 18 are based on the passage you have just heard.

16. A) Iced coffees sold by some popular chains are contaminated.

B) Some iced coffees have as many calories as a hot dinner.

C) Some brand-name coffees contain harmful substances.

D) Drinking coffee after a meal is more likely to cause obesity.

17. A) Have some fresh fruit.

B) Take a hot shower.

C) Exercise at the gym.

D) Eat a hot dinner.

18. A) They could enjoy a happier family life.

B) They could greatly improve their work efficiency.

C) Many embarrassing situations could be avoided.

D) Many cancer cases could be prevented.

Passage Two

Questions 19 to 21 are based on the passage you have just heard.

19. A) It has attracted worldwide attention.

B) It will change the concept of food.

C) It can help solve global food crises.

D) It will become popular gradually.

20. A) It comes regularly from its donors.

B) It has been drastically cut by NASA.

C) It has been increased over the years.

D) It is still far from being sufficient.

 


 

21. A) They are less healthy than we expected.

B) They are not as natural as we believed.

C) They are not as expensive as before.

D) They are more nutritious and delicious.

Passage Three

Questions 22 to 25 are based on the passage you have just heard.

22. A) Writing articles on family violence.

B) Hunting news for the daily headlines.

C) Reporting criminal offenses in Greenville.

D) Covering major events of the day in the city.

23. A) It has fewer violent crimes than big cities.

B) It is a much safer place than it used to be.

C) Assaults often happen on school campuses.

D) Rapes rarely occur in the downtown areas.

24. A) They are very destructive.

B) There are a wide range of cases.

C) There has been a rise in such crimes.

D) They have aroused fear among the residents.

25. A) Offer help to crime victims.

B) Work as a newspaper editor.

C) Write about something pleasant.

D) Do some research on local politics.

Section C

Directions: In this section, you will hear a passage three times. When the passage is

read for the first time, you should listen carefully for its general idea.

When the passage is read for the second time, you are required to fill in

the blanks with the exact words you have just heard. Finally, when the

passage is read for the third time, you should check what you have

written.

注意:此部分试题请在答题卡1上作答。

George Herbert Mead said that humans are talked into humanity. He meant that

we gain personal identity as we communicate with others. In the earliest years of our

lives, our parents tell us who we are. “You’re    26   .” “You’re so strong.” We first

see ourselves through the eyes of others, so their messages form important        of

27

our self-concepts. Later we interact with teachers, friends,         partners, and

28

co-workers who communicate their views of us. Thus, how we see ourselves reflects

the views of us that others communicate.


 

The

29

connection between identity and communication is dramatically

evident in children who        human contact. Case studies of children who were

30

isolated from others reveal that they lack a firm self-concept, and their mental and

psychological development is severely hindered by lack of language.

Communication with others not only affects our sense of identity but also directly

influences our physical and emotional    31   . Consistently, research shows that

communicating with others promotes health, whereas social isolation

32

stress,

disease, and early death. People who lack close friends have greater levels of anxiety

and depression than people who are close to others. A group of researchers reviewed

33

studies that traced the relationship between health and interaction with others.

The conclusion was that social isolation is         as dangerous as high blood

pressure, smoking and obesity. Many doctors and researchers believe that loneliness

34

harms the immune system, making us more

illnesses.

35

to a range of minor and major

Part III

Reading Comprehension

(40 minutes)

Section A

Directions:In this section, there is a passage with ten blanks. You are required to

select one word for each blank from a list of choices given in a word bank

following the passage. Read the passage through carefully before making

your choices. Each choice in the bank is identified by a letter. Please

mark the corresponding letter for each item on Answer Sheet 2  with

a single line through the centre. You may not use any of the words in the

bank more than once.

Questions 36 to 45 are based on the following passage.

To understand why we should be concerned about how young people read, it

helps to know something about the way the ability to read evolved. Unlike the ability

to understand and produce spoken language, the ability to read must be painstakingly

36

37

by each individual. The “reading circuits” we construct in the brain can be

or they can be robust, depending on how often and how   38   we use them.

The deep reader enters a state of hypnotic trance (心醉神迷的状态).  When

readers are enjoying the experience the most, the pace of their reading

39

slows.

The combination of fast, fluent decoding of words and slow, unhurried progress on

the page gives deep readers time to enrich their reading with reflection and analysis. It

gives them time to establish an        relationship with the author, the two of them

40

41

in a long and warm conversation like people falling in love.

This is not reading as many young people know it. Their reading is instrumental:

the difference between what literary critic Frank Kermode calls “carnal (肉体的)

reading” and “spiritual reading.” If we allow our offspring to believe carnal reading is

all there is — if we don’t open the door to spiritual reading, through an early

on discipline and practice — we will have        them of an enjoyable experience

they would not otherwise encounter. Observing young people’s         to digital

42

43

44


 

devices, some progressive  educators talk about  “meeting kids where they are,”

molding instruction  around  their onscreen  habits.  This is mistaken.  We need,

45   , to show them someplace they’ve never been, a place only deep reading can

take them.

注意:此部分试题请在答题卡2上作答。

A) acquired

B) actually

C) attachment

D) cheated

E) engaged

F) feeble

I) intimate

J) notwithstanding

K) petition

L) rather

M) scarcely

N) swayed

G) illicit

O) vigorously

H) insistence

Section B

Directions: In this section, you are going to read a passage with ten statements

attached to it. Each statement contains information given in one of the

paragraphs. Identify  the  paragraph from  which the  information is

derived. You may choose a paragraph more than once. Each paragraph

is  marked  with  a  letter.  Answer   the  questions  by  marking  the

corresponding letter on Answer Sheet 2.

Into the Unknown

The world has never seen population ageing before. Can it cope?

[A]Until the early 1990s nobody much thought about whole populations getting older.

The UN had the foresight to convene a “world assembly on ageing” back in 1982,

but that came and went. By 1994 the World Bank had noticed that something big

was happening. In a report entitled “Averting the Old Age Crisis”, it argued that

pension arrangements in most countries were unsustainable.

[B] For the next ten years a succession of books, mainly by Americans, sounded the

alarm.  They had titles like  Young  vs Old,  Gray Dawn  and  The Coming

Generational Storm, and  their message was blunt: health-care  systems were

heading for the rocks, pensioners were taking young people to the cleaners, and

soon there would be intergenerational warfare.

[C] Since then the debate has become less emotional, not least because a lot more is

known about the subject. Books, conferences and research papers have multiplied.

International organisations such as the OECD and the EU issue regular reports.

Population ageing is on every agenda, from G8 economic conferences to NATO

summits. The World Economic Forum plans to consider the future of pensions

and health care at its prestigious Davos conference early next year. The media,

including this newspaper, are giving the subject extensive coverage.


 

[D]Whether all that attention has translated into sufficient action is another question.

Governments in rich countries now accept that their pension and health-care

promises will soon become unaffordable, and many of them have embarked on

reforms, but so far only timidly. That is not surprising: politicians with an eye on

the next election will hardly rush to introduce unpopular measures that may not

bear fruit for years, perhaps decades.

[E] The outline of the changes needed is clear. To avoid fiscal (财政的) meltdown,

public pensions and health-care provision will have to be reined back severely and

taxes may have to go up. By far the most effective method to restrain pension

spending is to give people the opportunity to work longer, because it increases tax

revenues and reduces spending on pensions at the same time. It may even keep

them alive longer. John Rother, the AARP’s head of policy and strategy, points to

studies showing that other things being equal, people who remain at work have

lower death rates than their retired peers.

[F] Younger people today mostly accept that they will have to work for longer and

that their pensions will be less generous. Employers still need to be persuaded that

older workers are worth holding on to. That may be because they have had plenty

of younger ones to choose from, partly thanks to the post-war baby-boom and

partly because over the past few decades many more women have entered the

labour force, increasing employers’ choice. But the reservoir of women able and

willing to take up paid work is running low, and the baby-boomers are going grey.

[G]In many countries immigrants have been filling such gaps in the labour force as

have already emerged (and remember that the real shortage is still around ten

years off). Immigration in the developed world is the highest it has ever been, and

it is making a useful difference. In still-fertile America it currently accounts for

about 40% of total population growth, and in fast-ageing western Europe for

about 90%.

[H]On the face of it, it seems the perfect solution. Many developing countries have

lots of young people in need of jobs; many rich countries need helping hands that

will boost tax revenues and keep up economic growth. But over the next few

decades labour forces in rich countries are set to shrink so much that inflows of

immigrants would have to increase enormously to compensate: to at least twice

their current size in western Europe’s most youthful countries, and three times in

the older ones. Japan would need a large multiple of the few immigrants it has at

present. Public opinion polls show that people in most rich countries already think

that immigration is too high. Further big increases would be politically unfeasible.

[I] To tackle the problem of ageing populations at its root, “old” countries would

have to rejuvenate (使年轻) themselves by having more of their own children. A

number of them have tried, some more successfully than others. But it is not a

simple matter of  offering financial incentives or providing  more child care.

Modern urban life in rich countries is not well adapted to large families. Women

find it hard to combine family and career. They often compromise by having just

one child.


 

[J] And if fertility in ageing countries does not pick up? It will not be the end of the

world, at least not for quite a while yet, but the world will slowly become a

different place.  Older societies  may  be less  innovative and  more strongly

disinclined to take risks than younger ones. By 2025 at the latest, about half the

voters in America and most of those in western European countries will be over

50—and older people turn out to vote in much greater numbers than younger ones.

Academic studies have found no evidence so far that older voters have used their

power at the ballot box to push for policies that specifically benefit them, though

if in future there are many more of them they might start doing so.

[K]Nor is there any sign of the intergenerational warfare predicted in the 1990s. After

all, older people themselves mostly have families. In a recent study of parents and

grown-up  children in  11 European  countries,  Karsten Hank  of Mannheim

University found that 85% of them lived within 25km of each other and the

majority of them were in touch at least once a week.

[L] Even so, the shift in the centre of gravity to older age groups is bound to have a

profound effect on societies, not just economically and politically but in all sorts

of other ways too. Richard Jackson and Neil Howe of America’s CSIS, in a

thoughtful book called The Graying of the Great Powers, argue that, among other

things, the ageing of the developed countries will have a number of serious

security implications.

[M] For example, the shortage of young adults is likely to make countries more

reluctant to commit the few they have to military service. In the decades to 2050,

America will find itself playing an ever-increasing role in the developed world’s

defence effort. Because America’s population will still be growing when that of

most other developed countries is shrinking, America will be the only developed

country that still matters geopolitically (地缘政治上).

Ask me in 2020

[N]There is little that can be done to stop population ageing, so the world will have to

live with it. But some of the consequences can be alleviated. Many experts now

believe that given the right  policies, the effects, though grave, need not  be

catastrophic. Most countries have recognised the need to do something and are

beginning to act.

[O]But even then there is no guarantee that their efforts will work. What is happening

now is historically unprecedented. Ronald Lee, director of the Centre on the

Economics and Demography of Ageing at the University of California, Berkeley,

puts it briefly and clearly: “We don’t really know what population ageing will be

like, because nobody has done it yet.”

注意:此部分试题请在答题卡2上作答。

46. Employers should realise it is important to keep older workers in the workforce.


 

47. A recent study found that most old people in some European countries had

regular weekly contact with their adult children.

48. Few governments in rich countries have launched bold reforms to tackle the

problem of population ageing.

49. In a report published some 20 years ago, the sustainability of old-age pension

systems in most countries was called into doubt.

50. Countries that have a shortage of young adults will be less willing to send them to

war.

51. One-child families are more common in ageing societies due to the stress of

urban life and the difficulties of balancing family and career.

52. A series of books, mostly authored by Americans, warned of conflicts between

the older and younger generations.

53. Compared with younger ones, older societies tend to be less innovative and take

fewer risks.

54. The best solution to the pension crisis is to postpone the retirement age.

55. Immigration as a means to boost the shrinking labour force may meet with

resistance in some rich countries.

Section C

Directions: There are 2 passages in this section. Each passage is followed by some

questions or unfinished statements. For each of them there are four

choices marked A), B), C) and D). You should decide on the best choice

and mark the corresponding letter on Answer Sheet 2 with a single

line through the centre.

Passage One

Questions 56 to 60 are based on the following passage.

For most of the 20th century, Asia asked itself what it could learn from the

modern, innovating West. Now the question must be reversed: what can the West’s

overly indebted and sluggish (经济滞长的) nations learn from a flourishing Asia?

Just a few decades ago, Asia’s two giants were stagnating (停滞不前) under

faulty economic ideologies.  However, once China began  embracing free-market

reforms in the 1980s, followed by India in the 1990s, both countries achieved rapid

growth. Crucially, as they opened up their markets, they balanced market economy

with sensible government direction. As the Indian economist Amartya Sen has wisely

said, “The invisible hand of the market has often relied heavily on the visible hand of

government.”

 


 

Contrast this middle path with America and Europe, which have each gone

ideologically overboard in their own  ways. Since the 1980s, America has been

increasingly clinging to the ideology of uncontrolled free markets and dismissing the

role of government—following Ronald Reagan’s idea that “government is not the

solution to our problem; government is the problem.” Of course, when the markets

came crashing down in 2007, it was decisive government intervention that saved the

day.  Despite  this  fact,  many  Americans  are  still  strongly  opposed  to  “big

government.”

If Americans could only free themselves from their antigovernment doctrine,

they would begin to see that America’s problems are not insoluble. A few sensible

federal measures could put the country back on the right path. A simple consumption

tax of, say, 5% would significantly reduce the country’s huge government deficit

without damaging productivity. A small gasoline tax would help free America from

its dependence on oil imports and create incentives for green energy development. In

the same way, a significant reduction of wasteful agricultural subsidies could also

lower the deficit. But in order to take advantage of these common-sense solutions,

Americans will have  to put aside their  own attachment to the idea  of smaller

government and  less regulation. American politicians  will have to  develop the

courage to follow what is taught in all American public-policy schools: that there are

good taxes and bad taxes. Asian countries have embraced this wisdom, and have built

sound long-term fiscal (财政的) policies as a result.

Meanwhile, Europe has fallen prey to a different ideological trap: the belief that

European governments would always have infinite resources and could continue

borrowing as if there were no tomorrow. Unlike the Americans, who felt that the

markets knew best, the Europeans failed to anticipate how the markets would react to

their endless borrowing. Today, the European Union is creating a $580 billion fund to

ward off sovereign collapse. This will buy the EU time, but it will not solve the bloc’s

larger problem.

注意:此部分试题请在答题卡2上作答。

56. What has contributed to the rapid economic growth in China and India?

A) Free market plus government intervention.

B) Heavy reliance on the hand of government.

C) Copying western-style economic behavior.

D) Timely reform of government at all levels.

57. What does Ronald Reagan mean by saying “government is the problem” (Line 5,

Para. 3)?

A) Government action is key to solving economic problems.

B) Many social problems arise from government inefficiency.

C) Many social ills are caused by wrong government policies.

D) Government regulation hinders economic development.

 


 

58. What stopped the American economy from collapsing in 2007?

A) Cooperation between the government and businesses.

B) Self-regulatory repair mechanisms of the free market.

C) Effective measures adopted by the government.

D) Abandonment of big government by the public.

59. What is the author’s suggestion to the American public in face of the government

deficit?

A) They give up the idea of smaller government and less regulation.

B) They put up with the inevitable sharp increase of different taxes.

C) They urge the government to revise its existing public policies.

D) They develop green energy to avoid dependence on oil import.

60. What is the problem with the European Union?

A) Conservative ideology.

B) Excessive borrowing.

C) Lack of resources.

D) Shrinking market.

Passage Two

Questions 61 to 65 are based on the following passage.

Picture a typical MBA lecture theatre twenty years ago. In it the majority of

students will have conformed to the standard model of the time: male, middle class

and Western. Walk into a class today, however, and you’ll get a completely different

impression. For a start, you will now see plenty more women—the University of

Pennsylvania’s Wharton School, for example, boasts that 40% of its new enrolment is

female. You will also see a wide range of ethnic groups and nationals of practically

every country.

It might be tempting, therefore, to think that the old barriers have been broken

down and equal opportunity achieved. But, increasingly, this apparent diversity is

becoming a mask for a new type of conformity. Behind the differences in sex, skin

tones and mother tongues, there are common attitudes, expectations and ambitions

which risk creating a set of clones among the business leaders of the future.

Diversity, it  seems, has  not helped to  address fundamental  weaknesses in

business leadership. So what can be done to create more effective managers of the

commercial world? According to Valerie Gauthier, associate dean at HEC Paris, the

key lies in the process by which MBA programmes recruit their students. At the

moment candidates are selected on a fairly narrow  set of criteria such as prior

academic and career performance, and analytical and problem solving abilities. This

is then coupled to a school’s picture of what a diverse class should look like, with the

result that passport, ethnic origin and sex can all become influencing factors. But

schools rarely dig down to find out what really makes an applicant succeed, to create

a class which also contains diversity of attitude and approach—arguably the only

diversity that, in a business context, really matters.

Professor Gauthier believes schools should not just be selecting candidates from

traditional sectors such as banking, consultancy and industry. They should also be

seeking individuals who have backgrounds in areas such as political science, the


 

creative arts, history or philosophy, which will allow them to put business decisions

into a wider context.

Indeed, there does seem to be a demand for the more rounded leaders such

diversity might create. A study by Mannaz, a leadership development company,

suggests that,  while the  bully-boy chief  executive of old  may not  have been

eradicated completely, there is a definite shift in emphasis towards less tough styles

of management—at least in America and Europe. Perhaps most significant, according

to Mannaz, is the increasing interest large companies have in more collaborative

management models, such as those prevalent in Scandinavia, which seek to integrate

the hard and soft aspects of leadership and encourage delegated responsibility and

accountability.

注意:此部分试题请在答题卡2上作答。

61. What characterises the business school student population of today?

A) Greater diversity.

B) Intellectual maturity.

C) Exceptional diligence.

D) Higher ambition.

62. What is the author’s concern about current business school education?

A) It will arouse students’ unrealistic expectations.

B) It stresses competition rather than cooperation.

C) It focuses on theory rather than on practical skills.

D) It will produce business leaders of a uniform style.

63. What aspect of diversity does Valerie Gauthier think is most important?

A) Attitude and approach to business.

B) Social and professional experience.

C) Age and educational background.

D) Ethnic origin and gender.

64. What applicants does the author think MBA programmes should consider recruiting?

A) Applicants with prior experience in corporate activities.

B) Applicants with sound knowledge in math and statistics.

C) Applicants from less developed regions and areas.

D) Applicants from outside the traditional sectors.

65. What does Mannaz say about the current management style?

A) It is eradicating the tough aspects of management.

B) It is shifting towards more collaborative models.

C) It adopts the bully-boy chief executive model.

D) It encourages male and female executives to work side by side.


 

Part IV

Translation

(30 minutes)

Directions: For this part, you are allowed 30 minutes to translate a passage from

Chinese into  English. You should  write your  answer on Answer

Sheet 2.

中国新年是中国最重要的传统节日,在中国也被称为春节。新年的庆祝活动

从除夕开始一直延续到元宵节(the Lantern Festival),即从农历(lunar calendar

最后一个月的最后一天至新年第一个月的第十五天。各地欢度春节的习俗和传统

有很大差异,但通常每个家庭都会在除夕夜团聚,一起吃年夜饭。为驱厄运、迎

好运,家家户户都会进行大扫除。人们还会在门上粘贴红色的对联(couplets),

对联的主题为健康、发财和好运。其他的活动还有放鞭炮、发红包和探亲访友等。

注意:此部分试题请在答题卡2上作答。


 

Tape Script of Listening Comprehension

Section A

Directions:  In this  section,  you  will hear  8  short conversations  and  2  long

conversations. At the end of each conversation, one or more questions will

be asked about what was said. Both the conversation and the questions

will be spoken only once. After each question there will be a pause.

During the pause, you must read the four choices marked A), B), C) and

D), and decide which is the best answer. Then mark the corresponding

letter on Answer Sheet 1 with a single line through the centre.

1. W: Did you hear that Anna needs to stay in bed for four weeks?

M: Yeah. She injured her spine in a fall. And the doctor told her to lie flat on her back

for a month, so it can mend.

Q: What can we learn from the conversation?

2. W: We’re taking up a collection to buy a gift for Gemma. She’ll have been with the

company 25 years next week.

M: Well, count me in, but I’m a bit short on cash now. When do you need it?

Q: What is the man going to do?

3. W: Tony’s mother has invited me to dinner. Do you think I should tell her in

advance that I’m a vegetarian?

M: Of course. I think she’d appreciate it—imagine how you’d both feel if she fixed a

turkey dinner or something.

Q: What does the man suggest the woman do?

4. W: I hope you’re not too put out with me for the delay. I had to stop by Fred’s

home to pick up a book on my way here.

M: Well, that’s not a big deal. But you might at least phone if you know you’re going

to keep someone waiting.

Q: What do we learn about the woman from the conversation?

5. W: I don’t think we have enough information for our presentation. But we have to

give it tomorrow. There doesn’t seem to be much we can do about it.

M: Yeah. At this point, we’ll have to make do with what we’ve got.

Q: What does the man suggest they do?

6. M: This truck looks like what I need, but I’m worried about maintenance. For us,

it’ll have to operate for long periods of time in very cold temperatures.

W: We have several models that are specially adapted for extreme conditions. Would

you like to see them?

Q: What do we learn about the man from the conversation?

 


 

7. W: I’d like to exchange this shirt. I’ve learned that the person I bought it for is

allergic to wool.

M: Maybe we can find something in cotton or silk. Please come this way.

Q: What does the woman want to do?

8. W: I think your article in the school newspaper is right on target. And your

viewpoints have certainly convinced me.

M: Thanks. But in view of the general responses, you and I are definitely in the

minority.

Q: What does the man mean?

Conversation One

W: One of the most interesting experiments with dolphins must be one done by Dr

Jarvis Bastian. What he tried to do was to teach a male dolphin called Buzz and a

female called Doris to communicate with each other across a solid barrier.

M: So how did he do it exactly?

W: Well, first of all he kept the two dolphins together in the same tank and taught

them to press levers whenever they saw a light. The levers were fitted to the side of

the tank next to each other. If the light flashed on and off several times, the dolphins

were supposed to press the left-hand lever followed by the right-hand one. If the light

was kept steady, the dolphins were supposed to press the levers in reverse order.

Whenever they responded correctly they were rewarded with fish.

M: Sounds terribly complicated …

W: Well, that was the first stage. In the second stage, Dr Bastian separated the

dolphins into two tanks. They could still hear one another but they couldn’t actually

see each other. The levers and the light were set up in exactly the same way, except

that this time it was only Doris who could see the light indicating which lever to press

first. But in order to get their fish both dolphins had to press the levers in the correct

order. This meant of course that Doris had to tell Buzz whether it was a flashing light

or whether it was a steady light.

M: So did it work?

W: Well – amazingly enough, the dolphins achieved a 100% success rate …

Questions 9 to 11 are based on the conversation you have just heard.

9. What is the purpose of Dr Jarvis Bastian’s experiment?

10. What were the dolphins supposed to do when they saw the steady light?

11. How did the second stage of the experiment differ from the first stage?

Conversation Two

W: There’s an element there about competition, though, isn’t there? Because British

Railways are a nationalised industry, there’s only one railway system in the country. If

you don’t like a particular can of baked beans, you can go and buy another, but if you

don’t like a particular railway, you can’t go and use another.

 


 

M: Some people who write to me say this. They say that if you didn’t have a

monopoly, you wouldn’t be able to do the things you do. Well, I don’t  think we do

anything deliberately to upset our customers. We have particular problems. Since

1946 when the Transport Act came in, we were nationalised.

W: Do you think that’s a good thing? Has it been a good thing for the railways, do

you think, to be nationalised?

M: Oh, I think so, yes. Because in general, modes of transport are all around, let’s

face the fact. The car arrived, the car is here to stay. There’s no question about that.

W: So what you’re saying then is that if the railways hadn’t been nationalised, they

would simply have disappeared.

M: Oh, I think they would have. They’re disappearing fast in America. Er, the French

railways lose ?1 billion a year, the German railways ?2 billion a year. But you see,

those governments are prepared to pour money into the transport system to keep it

going.

W: So in a sense you’re caught between two extremes, on the one hand you’re trying

not to lose too much money, and on the other hand you’ve got to provide the best

service.

M: Yes, you’re right.

Questions 12 to 15 are based on the conversation you have just heard.

12. What does the woman say about British Railways?

13. What do some people who write to the man complain about?

14. What does the man say threatens the existence of railways?

15. What does the man say about railways in other countries?

Section B

Directions: In this section, you will hear 3 short passages. At the end of each passage,

you will hear some questions. Both the passage and the questions will be

spoken only once. After you hear a question, you must choose the best

answer from the four choices marked A), B), C) and D). Then mark the

corresponding letter on Answer Sheet 1 with a single line through

the centre.

Passage One

Enjoying  an iced coffee? Better skip dinner or hit the gym afterwards, with a

cancer charity warning that some iced coffees contain as many calories as a hot

dinner.

The World Cancer Research Fund (WCRF) conducted a survey of iced coffees

sold by some popular chains in Britain including Starbucks, Caffe Nero and Costa

Coffee to gauge the calories as studies increasingly link obesity with cancer.

The worst offender — a coffee from Starbucks — had 561 calories. Other iced

coffees contained more than 450 calories and the majority had in excess of 200.

Health experts advise that the average woman should  consume about 2,000

calories a day and a man about 2,500 calories to maintain a healthy weight. Dieters

 


 

aim for 1,000 to 1,500 calories a day.

“The fact that there is an iced coffee on the market with over a quarter of a

woman’s daily  calories allowance is  alarming,” Dr. Rachel  Thompson, science

program manager at London-based WCRF, said in a widely-reported statement.

“This is the amount of calories you might expect to have in an evening meal, not

in a drink.”

The WCRF  has estimated that  19,000 cancers a  year in Britain  could be

prevented if people lost their excess weight, with growing evidence that excess body

fat increases the risk of various cancers.

“If you are having these types of coffee regularly, then they will increase the

chances of you becoming overweight, which in turn increases your risk of developing

cancer, as well as other diseases such as heart disease,” she added.

Questions 16 to 18 are based on the passage you have just heard.

16. What warning did some health experts give?

17. What does the speaker suggest people do after they have an iced coffee?

18. What could British people expect if they maintained a normal body weight

according to the WCRF?

Passage Two

In a small laboratory at the Medical University of South Carolina, Dr. Vladimir

Mironov has been working for a decade to grow meat.

A developmental biologist and tissue engineer, Dr. Mironov is one of only a few

scientists worldwide involved in bioengineering “cultured” meat.

It’s a product he believes could help solve future global food crises resulting

from shrinking amounts of land available for growing meat the old-fashioned way.

Growth of cultured meat is also under way in the Netherlands, Mironov told

Reuters in an interview, but in the United States, it is science in search of funding and

demand.

The new National Institute of Food and Agriculture won’t fund it, the National

Institutes of Health won’t fund it, and NASA funded it only briefly, Mironov said.

“It’s  classic  disruptive   technology,”  Mironov  said.   “Bringing  any  new

technology on the market, on average, costs $1 billion. We don’t even have $1

million.”

Director of the Advanced Tissue Biofabrication Center in the Department of

Regenerative Medicine and Cell Biology at the medical university, Mironov now

primarily conducts research on tissue engineering, or growing, of human organs.

“There’s an unpleasant factor when people find out meat is grown in a lab. They

don’t like to associate technology with food,” said Nicholas Genovese, a visiting

scholar in cancer cell biology.

“But there’re a lot of products that we eat today that are considered natural that

are produced in a similar manner,” Genovese said.

Questions 19 to 21 are based on the passage you have just heard.

 


 

19. What does Dr. Mironov think of bioengineering cultured meat?

20. What does Dr. Mironov say about the funding for their research?

21. What does Nicholas Genovese say about a lot of products we eat today?

Passage Three

Florence Hayes is a journalist for the Greenville Journal, the daily newspaper in

town. Specifically, she covers crime in the Greenville area. This responsibility takes

her to many different places every week—the police station, the court and the hospital.

Most of the crimes that she writes about fall into two groups: violent crimes and

crimes against property.

There isn’t much violent crime in a small town like Greenville, or at least not as

much as in large urban areas. But assaults often occur on Friday and Saturday nights

near the bars downtown. There’re also one or two rapes on campus every semester.

Florence is very interested in this type of crime and tries to write a long article about

each one. She expects that this will make women more careful when they walk

around Greenville  alone  at night.  Fortunately, there’re  usually  no murders  in

Greenville.

Crimes against property make up most of Ms. Hayes’ reporting. They range from

minor cases of deliberate damaging of things to much more serious offenses, such as

car accidents involving drunk drivers, or bank robberies. But Florence has to report

all of these violations, from the thief who took typewriters from every unlocked room

in a dormitory to the thief who stole $1 million worth of artwork from the university

museum.

Ms. Hayes enjoys working for a newspaper, but she sometimes gets unhappy

about all the crimes she has to  report. She would prefer to start writing about

something more interesting and less unpleasant, such as local news or politics. Maybe

next year!

Questions 22 to 25 are based on the passage you have just heard.

22. What is Florence Hayes’ main responsibility as a journalist?

23. What does the speaker say about security in Greenville?

24. What do we learn about crimes against property in the Greenville area?

25. What would Florence Hayes prefer to do?

Section C

Directions: In this section, you will hear a passage three times. When the passage is

read for the first time, you should listen carefully for its general idea.

When the passage is read for the second time, you are required to fill in

the blanks with the exact words you have just heard. Finally, when the

passage is read for the third time, you should check what you  have

written.

 


 

George Herbert Mead said that humans are talked into humanity. He meant that

we gain personal identity as we communicate with others. In the earliest years of our

lives, our parents tell us who we are. “You’re (26) intelligent.” “You’re so strong.”

We first see ourselves through the eyes of others, so their messages form important

(27) foundations  of our self-concepts.  Later we interact with  teachers, friends,

(28) romantic partners, and co-workers who communicate their views of us. Thus,

how we see ourselves reflects the views of us that others communicate.

The  (29)   profound  connection  between   identity  and   communication  is

dramatically evident in children who (30) are  deprived of human contact. Case

studies of children who were  isolated from others reveal that they lack  a firm

self-concept, and their mental and psychological development is severely hindered by

lack of language.

Communication with others not only affects our sense of identity but also directly

influences our physical and emotional (31) well-being. Consistently, research shows

that communicating with others promotes health, whereas social isolation (32) is linked

to stress, disease, and early death. People who lack close friends have greater levels

of anxiety and depression than people who are close to others. A group of researchers

reviewed (33) scores of studies  that traced the relationship between  health and

interaction with others. The conclusion was that social isolation is (34) statistically  as

dangerous  as  high blood  pressure,  smoking  and  obesity.  Many doctors  and

researchers believe  that loneliness harms  the immune system, making  us more

(35) vulnerable to a range of minor and major illnesses.


 

参考答案

Part II 

Section A

1.   D

6.   A

11. D

Listening Comprehension

2.   A

7.   D

12. C

3.   C

8.   C

13. B

4.   B

9.   C

14. A

5.   D

10. A

15. B

Section B

16. B

21. B

17. C

22. C

18. D

23. A

19. C

24. B

20. D

25. C

Section C

26. intelligent

28. romantic

30. are deprived of

32. is linked to

34. statistically

27. foundations

29. profound

31. well-being

33. scores of

35. vulnerable

Part III   Reading Comprehension

Section A

36. A

41. E

37. F

42. H

38. O

43. D

39. B

44. C

40. I

45. L

Section B

46. F

51. I

47. K

52. B

48. D

53. J

49. A

54. E

50. M

55. H

Section C

56. A

61. A

57. D

62. D

58. C

63. A

59. A

64. D

60. B

65. B

Part IV   Translation

Chinese New Year is the most important traditional Chinese holiday. In China, it

is also known as the Spring Festival. New Year celebrations run from Chinese New

Year’s Eve, the last day of the last month of the lunar calendar, to the Lantern Festival

on the 15th day of the first month. Customs and traditions concerning the celebration

of the Chinese New Year vary widely from place to place. However, New Year’s Eve

is usually an occasion for Chinese families to gather for the annual reunion dinner. It

is also traditional for every family to thoroughly clean the house in order to sweep

away ill fortune and to bring in good luck. And doors will be decorated with red

couplets with themes of health, wealth and good luck. Other activities include lighting

firecrackers, giving money in red envelopes, and visiting relatives and friends.